Describe the theories of cooley, mead, freud, piaget, kohlberg, gilligan, and erikson because socialization is so important, scholars in various fields have tried to understand how and why it occurs, with different scholars looking at different aspects of the process. Kohlberg's theory of moral development, which is heavily influenced by piaget's theory and kantian ethics, is an attempt to universalize ethics in an era when moral relativism has the popular vote the theory (which will not be covered in detail) involves three moral levels, each of which includes two developmental stages (six stages in total. Transcript of moral development: kohlberg, gilligan, haidt kohlberg's stages of moral development postconventional morality effort to define moral values and principles apart from authority or group stage 5 - democratically determined law/social contract (ages 25+. Gilligan's theory focused on both care-based morality and justice-based morality by proposing three stages of moral development: pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional.
Moral development below are described two theories related to moral development: lawrence kohlberg’s levels of moral reasoning and carol gilligan’s stages of the ethics of care both of these theories have come under criticism in recent years for a variety of reasons. Ethics of justice , also known as morality of justice , is the term used by carol gilligan in in a different voice to describe the ethics and moral reasoning common to men and preferred by kohlberg's stages of moral development. Kohlberg defined moral reasoning as judgements about right and wrong hisstudies of moral reasoning are based on the use of moral dilemmas, orhypothetical situations in which people must make a difficult decision.
Lawrence kohlberg developed a theory of personality development that focused on the growth of moral thought building on a two-stage process proposed by piaget, kohlberg expanded the theory to include six different stages. The moral stages of development describe the way individuals act mentally and emotionally based on their age and experiences piaget, kohlberg, and gilligan each developed a theory based on their understandings of human development. Moral development may not occur automatically instages this development may be more related to the rewarding or punishing of achild for certain behavior the home environment, according to somepsychologists, may be more closely related to moral development than a naturalprogression of stages. Perhaps the most important critique of kohlberg’s theory is that it may describe the moral development of boys better than it describes that of girls carol gilligan (1982) has argued that, because of differences in their socialization, males tend to value principles of justice and rights, whereas females value caring for and helping others. Moral psychology is the study of phenomena such as moral thought, feeling, reasoning, and motivation for example, in moral psychology, one wonders what role reasoning and emotions play in generating moral judgment.
Adolescence is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood it is the period from puberty until full adult status has been attained. Theories of development kohlberg's stages of moral development (kohlberg and gilligan, 197 1) for example, one culture might discourage physical fighting, while another encourages it more as a result, children will have different beliefs about fighting, but they will still reason about it in the same way at the same stage. Some critics claim that gilligan's levels provide no more an account of human moral development than kohlberg's stages, with kohlberg focusing on men's moral experience, and gilligan on women's taking this objection seriously, gilligan has launched several studies of men's moral experience.
Note that kohlberg believed, as did piaget, that most moral development occurs through social interaction the discussion approach is based on the insight that individuals develop as a result of cognitive conflicts at their current stage. Like many theories of personality development, kohlberg’s theory fails to describe the development of women accurately but provides a much better understanding of male development this is a specific variation of the first criticism, suggesting that the theory itself reflects the sexism of western culture. 6-2 governing the game of marbles fulfill all the defining conditions of a moral system the rules control how individuals behave toward one another in terms of the actions which comprise the game, they. Carol gilligan (1977), kohlberg’s one-time assistant, has stated that his theory is overly androcentric she argues that it does not adequately describe the concerns of women who have a morality of care while men have a morality of justice.
Gilligan claims empirical support for the existence of a moral outlook or orientation distinct from one based on impartiality, impersonality, justice, formal rationality, and universal principle. Kohlberg identifies two of these justice operations: equality, the dilemmas are fictional short stories that describe situations in which a person has to make a moral decision gilligan's theory of moral development does not focus on the value of justice. The psychologist and educator lawrence kohlberg proposed a cognitive-developmental theory of morality that dominated the fields of moral psychology and moral education for over two decades until the mid-1990s. Kohlberg and gilligan: duet or duel a paper-and-pencil test on moral development doing so, he used kohlberg’s theory of cognitive moral development he did not include any items for stage 1, and the findings represent a strong corroboration of kohlberg’ stage theory, at least stage 3 to 5 and, as is suggested in the title of.